How did the universe come to be?
• What is the origin of mass?
• What is dark matter?
• What happened to the antimatter?
• Are there undiscovered principles of nature?
• Do extra dimensions exist?
• How can we solve the mystery of dark energy?
• What happens to matter at 100,000 times the temperature at the Centre of the Sun.
Best explanation of Higgs boson?
‘God particle’ physics
The Higgs boson, predicted by theoretical physicists in the 1960s, has been known as the “God particle” because without it other particles would not have any mass. Scientists’ best theory for why different things have mass is the “Higgs field” – where mass can be seen as a measure of the resistance to movement. The “Higgs field” is shown here as a room of physicists chatting among themselves.A well-known scientist walks into the room and causes a bit of a stir – attracting admirers with each step and interacting strongly with them – signing autographs and stopping to chat.As she becomes surrounded by admiring fans, she finds it harder to move across the room – in this analogy, she acquires mass due to the “field” of fans, with each fan acting like a single Higgs boson. If a less popular scientist enters the room, only a small crowd gathers, with no-one clamouring for attention. He finds it easier to move across the room – by analogy, his interaction with the bosons is lower, and so he has a lower mass.
In modern physics almost the entire Universe is missing: 96 percent.
We can only account for just 4 percent of the Universe. This is because we can’t find enough mass in galaxies to maintain their rotational spiral shape and stop stars spinning off into deep space.
Super Symmetry’ Theory Fails Collider Tests – Physicists Must Seek New ‘Theories of Everything’
It was perhaps particle physics’ most elegant and aesthetically appealing theory of (almost) everything: Super Symmetry (SUSY). SUSY, a type of gauge theory developed over the past thirty years, was an ambitious attempt to integrate elementary particle physics with a broader theoretical understanding of the cosmos — an attempt to approach a ‘Theory of Everything.’
The theory posited ‘super partner particles’ — exotic particles that accompany every known particles and what provide the ‘symmetry’ in super symmetry — that would indirectly confirm such controversial ‘New Physics’ theories as String Theory.
But with recent high energy collision experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) producing (most likely) the fabled Higgs Boson — but none of the partner particles expected to appear within the energies ranges utilized — physicists are now having to reconsider one of their most prized theoretical models of the universe.
SUSY Fails the Test
According to physicist Mikhail Shifman, a once enthusiastic advocate of SUSY and author of an essay published on arXiv.org,, “…nature apparently doesn’t want it. At least, not in its original form.” [quote source]
Shifman’s comment would seem to leave the door open for modifications of the theory.
Indeed, with the failure of the LHC to find any of these “exotic particles” — which might have upended the Standard Model — many physicists have been seeking ways to modify SUSY to account for these failures, while trying to preserve the more powerful features of SUSY.
Cancellation of the Higgs boson quadratic mass renormalization between fermionic top quark loop and scalar stop squark tadpole Feynman diagrams in a supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model
Reluctance to abandon SUSY is understandable, as it provides explanations for three lasting question in cosmology and theoretical physics: it posits a class of particles that may comprise dark matter*, it unifies three of the fundamental forces (weak, strong, electromagnetism) at high energies, and it solves the Hierarchy Problem — a long-standing physics conundrum involving differences in parameters between mathematical prediction and experimental outcome.
But in his essay, Shifman is critical of these efforts to developed “contrived baroque-like aesthetically unappealing modifications”. The reality is that the theory has failed the experimental tests. Shifman thus urges his colleagues to “start thinking and developing new ideas.”
* called neutralinos, a type of Weakly-interacting Massive Particle (WiMP)
Where to go from here?
With the Standard Model of Physics (virtually) certainly confirmed with the tentative discovery of the Higgs boson*, the fears of many physicists — that there is nothing more to find beyond the Standard Model — have become real.
The disappointing results form the latest collider experiments were presented recently at the Hadron Collider Physics conference in Kyoto, Japan, and with them went many cherished theories that might have “unified the fields”, or some of them.
The missing universe
4% visible, 96% dark matter and dark energy
What the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) showed recently should shock our minds, shake our bodies and destroy our psychical stability.What we are, what we touch, what we see is 4 (four) per cent of what makes out the Universe. The rest is dark matter (22%) and dark energy (74%). Although we do not distinguish a damn thing in the darkness, this “obscure energy” slows down galaxy growth and distorts the image we get from the farthest galaxies.What is the aim of this dark 96% surrounding us? Does it follow the same physical rules? Do we influence it as it influences us? Is there any interchange between dark and light matter? How is a reality that can be sensed only by the distortions it provokes on our reality? Could we ever sense it directly, as long as we are bound to this light reality? Everything in the universe is either mass or energy, but there’s not enough of either. Scientists think 96% of the cosmos is missing. They have come up with names for the missing stuff – “dark energy” and “dark matter” – but that doesn’t really tell us anything about them. And it’s not as if they’re not important: dark energy is continually creating new swaths of space and time, while dark matter appears to be holding all the galaxies together. No wonder cosmologists are searching for clues to their whereabouts.
Dr.Rupnathji is a scholar who has earned the Master’s Degree in Radiation Physics. Recipient of many medals and honours, He is at once a Physician, an astrophysicist and an applied mathematician. He is an author who has numerous publications, both technical and educational. He is a Professor and has been Distinguished Honors Visitng Lecturer at numerous universities throughout the World.Please see his Books.
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Before God we are all equally wise – and equally foolish – Albert Einstein